His articles and blogs are published widely in Gobernarte, and in the Transparency in Finance Infoguide, among others. Degree in Sociology Since , she serves as Undersecretary at UBA. She recently won the position of guest professor at the University of Poitiers, France. Between and , she was responsible for the implementation of the research and postgraduate program at the National University of Avellaneda. She is a professor at Torcuato Di Tella University.
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She worked as a consultant for international entities, United Nations agencies and governments of the region. With a background in social sciences and law, Jackie focuses on power and exclusion, and has published widely on the role of law and courts in social change, as well as on socio-economic rights, access to courts, protest and social movements, property law and gender-based harm. Michelsen Institute in Norway.
In May , Jackie became a member of the South African Ministerial Task Team to advise on matters related to sexual harassment and gender-based violence at South African universities. He has more than 30 years of academic experience and practice in the field of human rights and international relations. The backlash has been so severe that other failed ideologies are gaining new adherents throughout these regions.
In Nicaragua, for instance, IMF and World Bank structural adjustments failed so conspicuously that the pitiful Sandinista regime of the s now looks good by comparison. Its leader, Daniel Ortega, is back in power. This blowback against "globalization from above" has spread to every corner of the Earth. It now threatens to kill sensible, moderate steps toward the freer movement of goods, ideas, capital, and people.
The ideology of Development is not only about having experts design your free market for you; it is about having the experts design a comprehensive, technical plan to solve all the problems of the poor. These experts see poverty as a purely technological problem, to be solved by engineering and the natural sciences, ignoring messy social sciences such as economics, politics, and sociology.
He is now recycling his theories of overnight shock therapy, which failed so miserably in Russia, into promises of overnight global poverty reduction. Not to mention such critical interventions as "counseling and information services for men to address their reproductive health needs.
Euro crisis or Argentina/Iceland/Malaysia: Which will be the model for future crises? - Resilience
So the admirable concern of rich countries for the tragedies of world poverty is thus channeled into fattening the international aid bureaucracy, the self-appointed priesthood of Development. Like other ideologies, this thinking favors collective goals such as national poverty reduction, national economic growth, and the global Millennium Development Goals, over the aspirations of individuals. Bureaucrats who write poverty-reduction frameworks outrank individuals who actually reduce poverty by, say, starting a business.
Just as Marxists favored world revolution and socialist internationalism, Development stresses world goals over the autonomy of societies to choose their own path. It favors doctrinaire abstractions such as "market-friendly policies," "good investment climate," and "pro-poor globalization" over the freedom of individuals. Development also shares another Marxist trait: It aspires to be scientific. Finding the one correct solution to poverty is seen as a scientific problem to be solved by the experts. They are always sure they know the answer, vehemently reject disagreement, and then later change their answers.
In psychiatry, this is known as Borderline Personality Disorder. The answer at first was aid-financed investment and industrialization in poor countries, then it was market-oriented government policy reform, then it was fixing institutional problems such as corruption, then it was globalization, then it was the Poverty Reduction Strategy to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. One reason the answers keep changing is because, in reality, high-growth countries follow a bewildering variety of paths to development, and the countries with high growth rates are constantly changing from decade to decade.
What about the many countries who tried to emulate these rising stars and failed? What about the former stars who have fallen on hard times, like the Ivory Coast, which was one of the fastest developers of the s and s, only to become mired in a civil war? All the previous answers were right; they were just missing one more "necessary condition" that the experts have only just now added to the list. Like all ideologies, Development is at the same time too rigid to predict what will work in the messy real world and yet flexible enough to forever escape falsification by real-world events.
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The high church of Development, the World Bank, has guaranteed it can never be wrong by making statements such as, "different policies can yield the same result, and the same policy can yield different results, depending on country institutional contexts and underlying growth strategies. Poor societies are not just poor, the experts tell us, they are "developing" until they reach the final stage of history, or "development," in which poverty will soon end. Under this historiography, an end to starvation, tyranny, and war are thrown in like a free toaster on an infomercial.
The experts judge all societies on a straight line, per capita income, with the superior countries showing the inferior countries the image of their own future. And the experts heap scorn on those who resist the inevitabilities on the path to development. The self-confidence of Developmentalists like Friedman is so strong that they impose themselves even on those who accept their strategies. This year, for instance, Ghana celebrated its 50th anniversary as the first black African nation to gain independence.
Official international aid donors to Ghana told its allegedly independent government, in the words of the World Bank: "We Partners are here giving you our pledge to give our best to make lives easier for you in running your country. The latter is the administrative border between Resistencia and Fontana. In the physical environment, no evidence of stoplights or vertical or horizontal signage could be seen. No elements that would block vision, such as trees or advertising signs, were observed. Arribalzaga: Both avenues are unpaved, there are no stoplights nor any type of horizontal or vertical signage.
No public streetlamps were identified. Regarding the general characteristics of the environment Table 1 it is observed that in the places with accident frequency: streetlamps were present Regarding speed reduction, Additionally, in Regarding associated factors Table 2 , in the bivariate analysis the presence of bike lanes, raised speed reducers, paved roads and road origin were not significantly associated with the frequency of traffic accidents.
Nevertheless, in both the bivariate and multivariate analysis the presence of street lighting, a tree near the road, and stoplights, as well as the type and shape of the road, were associated in a statistically significant way. Additionally, the average accident frequency for avenues was 2. On curved streets the average frequency of accidents was also greater as compared to winding streets 2. The findings of this study show areas vulnerable to high traffic accident frequency in three key areas of the city the northwest, center and south ; these higher numbers are associated with certain features of the physical environment that have significant influence.
This geographic location represents a dimension of analysis that should be considered in studies of daily mobility, for the direct relationship it has with the structural characteristics of circulation that show territorial inequalities. Cuaderno Urbano: Espacio, Cultura y Sociedad. The AMGR is an important administrative, commercial and service provision center; it concentrates the largest offer of services as well as the best indicators in housing, education and health in a province with a high index of poverty.
Euro crisis or Argentina/Iceland/Malaysia: Which will be the model for future crises?
Its centrality and the better living conditions reproduce and deepen the unequal relationship Resistencia holds with respect to the other municipalities that form part of the AMGR. Revista Transporte y Territorio. In these terms, Av. This situation helps to explain the high density of accidents occurring in the previously described areas.
This justification is based on the idea that through these arteries circulate diverse modes of transportation, such as non-motorized vehicles like bicycles and motorized vehicles motorcycles, cars, buses as well as a greater flow of people in transit. Other studies carried out in Argentina show the center and northern regions of the country to be the areas most affected by accidents, connected in part to demographic growth and increases in the automotive fleet.
With respect to the association between the physical environment and the frequency of accidents, the results of the association between the presence of street lighting and accident frequency is similar to that found in a systematic review in which three trials compared the lighting of the streets to a control area in terms of the total number of accidents, in which the pooled rate ratio RR was 0. Primary prevention measures for controlling pedestrian injuries and deaths and improving road safety. An aspect to take into account in the comparison is to adjust for the time of day in which the events occurred morning, afternoon and night , which is decisive in attributing the risk related to street lighting as a factor.
This could be a potential confounder of the association considering that a greater number of accidents occur at night or in the early morning, when lighting is of importance. The role of ambient light level in fatal crashes: inferences from daylight saving time transitions. Accident Analysis and Prevention. For this reason, it is crucial to identify the critical nodes of traffic accidents and the state of the lighting surrounding them, given that if a correlation exists between lack of lighting and accident frequency, lighting improvements in certain points of the city can be implemented as preventive measures.
Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed. Regarding the presence of trees next to the road, our study found that places without trees had a lower number of accidents. Similarly, in a case-control study that evaluated the relationship among different environmental factors and the occurrence of injuries in cyclists, an adjusted Odds Ratio of 3. Environmental determinants of bicycling injuries in Alberta, Canada.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health. According to the type of road, it was observed that This result is in line with a number of studies that have shown this road type to present higher levels of traffic accidents, perhaps due to the speeds reached on such roads that favor accident occurrence.
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Risk factors in highway traffic accidents: a case control study. In addition, it should be taken into account that combined factors exist that could potentiate one another in relation to accident frequency, such as roads where vehicles circulate at high speeds that also have poor lighting. Another factor related to the road are the curves it possesses, as curves were the most important factor related to accident frequency in our analysis.
Similar findings have been reported in some studies, which also specify that the direction of the curve whether to the right or to the left can condition accident occurrence.
http://bbmpay.veritrans.co.id/donde-conocer-chicos-de-mayorga.php Identifying critical road geometry parameters affecting crash rate and crash type. Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine. Are driving and overtaking on right curves more dangerous than on left curves? Elvik R. Does the influence of risk factors on accident occurrence change over time? In our study the presence of a stoplight in the vicinity of a site increased the frequency of traffic accidents. Although the function of this type of traffic signal is to control and regulate transit, we believe a high percentage of accidents occurred due to noncompliance with stoplight indications.
Illegal pedestrian crossing at signalised intersections: incidence and relative risk. In a multicentric study that included Resistencia, the authors informed high noncompliance with stoplights and transgression of transit norms in general. In this scenario, we consider it necessary to expand upon these results to determine the possible causes generating greater accident occurrence in the presence of stoplights. Speed enforcement detection devices for preventing road traffic injuries.
Speed cameras for the prevention of road traffic injuries and deaths. Effects of new urban motorway infrastructure on road traffic accidents in the local area: a retrospective longitudinal study in Scotland.